Skip to main content

Diamagnetic Substances and Its properties

Diamagnetic Substances :

Those substances, which are placed in the external magnetic field then they weakly magnetize in the opposite direction of the external magnetic field, are called diamagnetic substances. The susceptibility $\chi_{m} $ of diamagnetic substances is small and negative. Further, When diamagnetic substance placed in magnetic field then the flux density of the diamagnetic substance is slightly less than that in the free space. Thus, the relative permeability of diamagnetic substance $\mu_{r}$, is slightly less than 1.

Properties of Diamagnetic substances:

1. When a rod of a diamagnetic material is suspended freely between external magnetic poles (i.e. Between North and South Poles) then its axis becomes perpendicular to the external magnetic field $B$ (Figure). The poles produced on the two sides of the rod are similar to the poles of the external magnetic field.
Rod of Diamagnetic Substance in Magnetic Field
2. In a non-uniform magnetic field, a diamagnetic substance tends to move from the stronger magnetic field to the weaker magnetic field. If a diamagnetic liquid is taken in a watch glass placed on two magnetic poles very near to each other, then the liquid is depressed in the middle as shown in figure below(Figure) where the field is strongest. Now, if the distance between the poles is increased, the liquid rises in the middle, because now the field is strongest near the poles.
Diamagnetic Substance in Strong and Weak Magnetic Field
3. If the solution of diamagnetic substance is poured into a U-tube and apply the strong magnetic field into one arm of this U-tube then the level of the solution in that arm is depressed. As shown in the figure below:
Solution of Diamagnetic Substance in Magnetic Field
4. When diamagnetic gas molecules are passed between the poles of a magnet then diamagnetic gas molecules are spread across the field.

5. The susceptibility of a diamagnetic substance is independent of temperature.

Explanation of Diamagnetism on the Basis of Atomic Model:

The property of diamagnetism is generally found in those substances whose atoms (or ions or molecules) have an 'even' number of electrons. These even numbers of electron form pairs. In each pair of electrons, the spin of one electron is opposite to the other. So, the magnetic moment of one electron is opposite to the others because of that, the effect of magnetic dipole moments are neutralized by each other. As such, the net magnetic dipole moment of an atom (or ion or molecule) of a diamagnetic substance is zero.

When a diamagnetic substance is placed in an external magnetic field $B$ then this external magnetic field modifies the motion of the electrons in the atoms (or ions or molecules). Due to this, In each pair of electrons, the spin of one electron is become fast (Lenz's Law) and the other is slow due to that , the net magnetic dipole moment of the paired electron does not zero. Thus, a small magnetic dipole moment is induced in each atom of the substance (or ion or molecule) which is directly proportional to the magnetic field $B$ and opposite to its direction. Hence, the diamagnetic substance is magnetized opposite to the external magnetic field $B$, and the field lines become less dense inside the diamagnetic substance compared to those outside.
Atomic Model of Diamagnetic Substance
If the temperature of the diamagnetic substance is changed, there is no effect on its diamagnetic property. Thus, diamagnetism is temperature-independent.

Comments

Popular Posts

Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of light w

Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

Particle in one dimensional box (Infinite Potential Well)

Let us consider a particle of mass $m$ that is confined to one-dimensional region $0 \leq x \leq L$ or the particle is restricted to move along the $x$-axis between $x=0$ and $x=L$. Let the particle can move freely in either direction, between $x=0$ and $x=L$. The endpoints of the region behave as ideally reflecting barriers so that the particle can not leave the region. A potential energy function $V(x)$ for this situation is shown in the figure below. Particle in One-Dimensional Box(Infinite Potential Well) The potential energy inside the one -dimensional box can be represented as $\begin{Bmatrix} V(x)=0 &for \: 0\leq x \leq L \\ V(x)=\infty & for \: 0> x > L \\ \end{Bmatrix}$ $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2m}{\hbar^{2}}(E-V)\psi(x)=0 \qquad(1)$ If the particle is free in a one-dimensional box, Schrodinger's wave equation can be written as: $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2mE}{\hbar^{2}}\psi(x)=0$ $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x