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Showing posts with the label Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

Applications of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology has found wide-ranging applications in many fields. There are following some of the important applications discussed below. 1) Electronics: Nanosized electronic components show unique properties which are different from the larger semiconductor components. The semiconductor devices are based on the concept of charge transport only whereas the nanosized components work on the concept of charge as well as spin transport of electrons. This has been used in devices like spin FET, Spin LED etc. These devices have increased the data storage capacities of hard disks and have led to small and faster microprocessors. 2) Energy: Attempts are being made to increase the efficiency of solar cells by using nanotechnology. Another important area of research is the use of hydrogen as a fuel. The main problem with hydrogen is that it is highly combustible and hence cannot be stored easily. Efforts are being made to use carbon nanotubes to trap and store hydrogen. Nanoparticles ar

Nanoparticles and Its Properties

Introduction: The prefix 'nano' means a billionth ($10^{-9}$). The field of nanotechnology is the study of various structures of matter having dimensions of the order of a billionth of a meter. These particles are called nanoparticles. Nanotechnology is based on the fact that particles that are smaller than about $100 nm$ give rise to new properties of nanostructures built from them. Particles that are smaller than the characteristic length for a particular phenomenon show different physical and chemical properties than particles of larger sizes. For example, mechanical properties, optical properties, conductivity, melting point, and reactivity have all been observed to change when particles become smaller than the characteristic length. Gold and silver nanoparticles were used in window glass panes to obtain a variety of beautiful colors. Nanotechnology has a wide range of applications like producing lighter but stronger materials, constructing faster switches for comput

Preparation of nanostructured particles by sol-gel method

Introduction: The advent of the sol-gel process occurred in the year $1921$. In the $1960s$, its development was given due to the need for new synthesis methods in the nuclear industry. The sol-gel method is a widely used wet chemical technique to fabricate nanostructured materials. This technique is used to prepare nanoparticles of ceramics, glassy, and composite materials at relatively low temperatures based on wet chemical processing. It involves the conversion of a precursor solution (i.e. sol) into a solid three-dimension network (i.e. gel) through hydrolysis and condensation reactions of precursor compounds. There are following steps are given below to fabricate nanostructured material through the sol-gel method. 1. Precursor Compound Selection: The first step involves selecting the appropriate precursor compounds, usually metal alkoxides or inorganic salts, that will form the desired material upon hydrolysis and condensation. These precursors should be

Synthesis of Nanomaterials

In the field of nanomaterials, there are two main approaches to their synthesis and fabrication. A.) Top-Down Approach B.) Bottom-up Approach These two approaches are based on the methods used to create or assemble nanoscale materials and structures. A.) Top-Down Approach: In this approach, large-scale materials (i.e. Bulk materials) are broken down into smaller and smaller components until they reach the desired nanoscale dimensions i.e. firstly the bulk material is converted into powder form and then the powder's form is converted into nanoparticles. There are various physical methods (like Arc discharge method, Electron beam lithography, Mechanical grinding, etc) used to convert the bulk material into powder form and powder form is converted into nanoparticles by chemical methods (like Sol-Gel Process, Electrochemical method, Microemulsion etc.). One of the challenges with the top-down approach is that it may lead to a lack of control over the final nanomaterial'

Basics and types of Nanomaterials

What is a nanoparticle? Those particles that have size ranges between $1$ to $100 \: nanometres$ are called a nanoparticle. The particles are undetectable by the human eye. There are significant differences in the properties (like magnetic, electrical, Structural, Mechanical, and optical properties) of nanoparticles and bulk materials. What is nanomaterial? Those materials that have at least one dimension should be in nanometres i.e. $10^{-9}m$ are called nanomaterials. The prefix 'nano' means a billionth $(10^{-9})$. Types of nanomaterials There are two types of nanomaterial that can be classified: A.) On the basis of dimension B.) On the basis of material A.) On the basis of dimensions: According to Siegel, nanostructured materials are classified on the basis of dimension: 1.) Three-dimensional nanomaterials (Bulk Nanomaterial) 2.) Two-dimensional nanomaterials (Quantum Well) 3.) One-dimensional nanomaterials (Quantum Wire) 4.) Zero-d