Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem

Poynting Vector:
The rate of flow of energy per unit area in plane electromagnetic wave is known as Poynting vector. It is represented by $\overrightarrow{S}$. It is a vector quantity.
$\overrightarrow{S}=\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}$

$\overrightarrow{S}=\frac{1} {\mu_{0}} (\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{B})$

Poynting Theorem (Work energy theorem):

The most important aspect of electrodynamics is:
  • Energy density stored with an electromagnetic wave
  • Energy Flux associated with an electromagnetic wave
To derive the energy density and energy flux. We consider the conservation of energy in small volume elements in space. The work done per unit volume by an electromagnetic wave:

$W=\overrightarrow{J}.\overrightarrow{E} \qquad(1)$

This work done also consider as energy dissipation per unit volume. This energy dissipation must be connected with the net decrease in energy density and energy flow out of the volume. According to Modified Maxwell's Forth equation:

$\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{H} = \overrightarrow{J} + \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}$

$\overrightarrow{J} = \overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{H} - \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t} \qquad (2)$

Now subtitute the value of $\overrightarrow{J}$ in equation $(1)$. Therefore we get

$W=\overrightarrow{E}.\left( \overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{H} - \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) \qquad(3) $

Now we employ the vector identity

$\overrightarrow{\nabla}. (\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H})= \overrightarrow{H} (\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E})-\overrightarrow{E}.(\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{H})$

$\overrightarrow{E}.(\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{H}) = \overrightarrow{H} (\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E})-\overrightarrow{\nabla}. (\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H})\qquad (4)$

From equation $(3)$ and equation $(4)$

$ W= \overrightarrow{H} (\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E})-\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) - \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) $

$ W= \overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{-\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right)-\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) - \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{-\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right) - \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\frac{1}{2}\left [2 \overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{-\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right) + 2 \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) \right] $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\frac{1}{2}\left [ \overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right)+\overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right) + \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right)+ \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right) \right] $

Put $B=\mu H$ and $D=\epsilon E$ in the above equation

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\frac{1}{2}\left [ \overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right)+\frac{\overrightarrow{B}}{\mu} \left( \frac{\partial \left(\mu \overrightarrow{H}\right) }{\partial t}\right) + \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right)+ \frac{\overrightarrow{D}}{\epsilon} \left( \frac{\partial \left( \epsilon \overrightarrow{E}\right) }{\partial t}\right) \right] $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\frac{1}{2}\left [ \overrightarrow{H} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B} }{\partial t}\right)+\overrightarrow{B} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{H} }{\partial t}\right) + \overrightarrow{E} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{D} }{\partial t}\right)+ \overrightarrow{D} \left( \frac{\partial \overrightarrow{E} }{\partial t}\right) \right] $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) -\frac{1}{2}\left [ \frac{ \partial \left(\overrightarrow{B}.\overrightarrow{H}\right) }{\partial t} + \frac{ \partial \left( \overrightarrow{E}.\overrightarrow{D}\right) }{\partial t} \right] $

$ W= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) - \frac{1}{2} \frac{\partial}{\partial t} \left( \overrightarrow{H}.\overrightarrow{B}+\overrightarrow{E}.\overrightarrow{D} \right) $

$ JE= -\overrightarrow{\nabla}.(\overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H}) - \frac{\partial}{\partial t} \left( \frac{\overrightarrow{H}.\overrightarrow{B}+\overrightarrow{E}.\overrightarrow{D} }{2} \right) \qquad \left( \because W= \overrightarrow{J}.\overrightarrow{E} \right) $

$ -JE= \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} + \frac{\partial}{\partial t} \left( \frac{\overrightarrow{H}.\overrightarrow{B}+\overrightarrow{E}.\overrightarrow{D} }{2} \right) \qquad (\because \overrightarrow{S}= \overrightarrow{E} \times \overrightarrow{H})$

$ -JE= \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} + \frac{\partial U}{\partial t} \qquad \left( \because U = \frac{\overrightarrow{H}.\overrightarrow{B}+\overrightarrow{E}.\overrightarrow{D} }{2} \right) $

$ \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} + \frac{\partial U}{\partial t} =-JE $

This equation represents the conservation of energy principle. It is also known as Poynting theorem. Here Negative signs of work done to represent that electromagnetic flow with energy flux as continuity energy density. So this equation is also known as the continuity equation.

Where

$ \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S}$ $\rightarrow$ The flow of energy

$U$ $\rightarrow$ Energy density of electromagnetic filed

$S$ $\rightarrow$ Energy flux or Poyting vector

If Current density $\overrightarrow{J}=0$ Then

$ \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} + \frac{\partial U}{\partial t} = 0 $

$ \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} = \frac{\partial U}{\partial t} $

$ \overrightarrow{\nabla}.\overrightarrow{S} = \frac{\partial }{\partial t} (Storage \: energy) $

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