Derivation of Ohm's Law


Let us consider,

The length of the conductor = $l$
The cross-section area of the conductor = $A$
The potential difference across the conductor = $V$
The drift velocity of an electron in conductor = $v_{d}$

Now from the equation of the mobility of electron i.e.

$v_{d}= \mu E$

$v_{d}= \left( \frac{e\tau}{m} \right) E \qquad \left(\because \tau = \frac{e\tau}{m} \right)$

$v_{d}= \left( \frac{e\tau}{m} \right) \frac{V}{l}\qquad (1) \qquad \left(\because E = \frac{V}{l} \right)$

Now from the equation of drift velocity and electric current


Now substitute the value of $v_{d}$ from equation $(1)$ to above equation

$i=neA\left( \frac{e\tau}{m} \right) \frac{V}{l}$

$i=\left( \frac{ne^{2}A\tau}{ml} \right)V$

$\frac{V}{i}=\left( \frac{ml}{ne^{2}A\tau} \right)$


Where $R = \frac{ml}{ne^{2}A\tau} $ is known as electrical resistance of the conductor.



This is Ohm's Law.