### Postulate of wave mechanics or Quantum Mechanics

Postulate of Wave or Quantum Mechanics (or Operator formalism in Quantum mechanics) →

The formulation of mathematical equations of quantum mechanics is based on the linear operator. This operator formulation of quantum mechanics is known as postulates of quantum mechanics. These postulates are given below:-

1. For a system consisting of particles moving in a field of a conservative force, there is an associated complex wave function $\psi(x, y, z, t)$ where $x$,$y$,$z$ space coordinates, and $t$ is the time. This wave function enables us to obtain a description of the behavior of the system, consistent with the principle of uncertainty.

2. There is an operator with every observable dynamical quantity. The operator corresponding to the pertinent dynamical quantities is:-

Dynamical Variable Symbol Quantum Mechanical Operator
Position $x$
$y$
$z$
$x$
$y$
$z$
Momentum $P_{x}$
$P_{y}$
$P_{z}$
Generalised Form $\overrightarrow{P}$
$\frac{\hbar}{i}\frac{\partial}{\partial x}$
$\frac{\hbar}{i}\frac{\partial}{\partial y}$
$\frac{\hbar}{i}\frac{\partial}{\partial z}$
Generalised Form $\frac{\hbar}{i}\overrightarrow{\nabla}$
Total Energy $E$ $i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$
Total Energy $E$ $-\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2m} \nabla^{2}+V(x)$
This is also known as Hamiltonian Operator $H$.
Kinetic Energy $K$ $-\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2m} \nabla^{2}$
Potential Energy $V(x,y,z)$ $V(x,y,z)$

All the operators have eigen functions and eigen values.

3. The wave function $\psi(x,y,z,t)$ and its partial derivatives $\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial x}$, $\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial y}$, $\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial z}$ must be finite, continuous and single-valued for all values of $x$, $y$, $z$ and $t$

4. The product of $\psi(x,y,z,t)$ and $\psi^{*}(x,y,z,t)$ is always a real quantity. The product is called the probability density and $\psi\psi^{*} d\tau$ is interpreted as a probability that the particle will be found in volume element $d\tau$ at $x$,$y$,$z$ and time $t$. Since the total probability of finding particles somewhere in the entire space must be equal to 1.

$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \psi \: \psi^{*}\: d\tau = 1$

The integral is taken overall space.

5. The average or expectation value of an observable quantity $\alpha$ with which an operator $\hat{\alpha}$ is associated is defined by

6. $\left< \alpha \right> = \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \psi^{*} \hat{\alpha} \psi d\tau$

The integral being taken overall space.

### Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of light w

### Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

### Particle in one dimensional box (Infinite Potential Well)

Let us consider a particle of mass $m$ that is confined to one-dimensional region $0 \leq x \leq L$ or the particle is restricted to move along the $x$-axis between $x=0$ and $x=L$. Let the particle can move freely in either direction, between $x=0$ and $x=L$. The endpoints of the region behave as ideally reflecting barriers so that the particle can not leave the region. A potential energy function $V(x)$ for this situation is shown in the figure below. Particle in One-Dimensional Box(Infinite Potential Well) The potential energy inside the one -dimensional box can be represented as $\begin{Bmatrix} V(x)=0 &for \: 0\leq x \leq L \\ V(x)=\infty & for \: 0> x > L \\ \end{Bmatrix}$ $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2m}{\hbar^{2}}(E-V)\psi(x)=0 \qquad(1)$ If the particle is free in a one-dimensional box, Schrodinger's wave equation can be written as: $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2mE}{\hbar^{2}}\psi(x)=0$ \$\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x