### Mutual Induction Phenomenon and its Coefficient

Mutual Induction:

When two coils are placed near each other then the change in current in one coil ( Primary Coil) produces electro-motive force $\left( emf \right)$ in the adjacent coil ( i.e. secondary coil). This phenomenon is called the principle of Mutual Induction.

The direction of electro-motive force $\left( emf \right)$ depends or can be found by "Lenz's Law"

Mathematical Analysis of Coefficient of Mutual Induction:

Let us consider that two coils having the number of turns are $N_{1}$ and $N_{2}$. If these coils are placed near to each other and the change in current of the primary coil is $i_{1}$, then linkage flux in the secondary coil will be
$N_{2}\phi_{2} \propto i_{1}$

$N_{2}\phi_{2} = M i_{1} \qquad(1)$

Where $M$ $\rightarrow$ Coefficient of Mutual Induction.

According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The electro-motive force $\left( emf \right)$ in the secondary coil is

$e_{2}=-N_{2}\left( \frac{d \phi_{2}}{dt} \right)$

$e_{2}=-\frac{d \left(N_{2} \phi_{2} \right)}{dt} \qquad(2)$

From equation $(1)$ and equation $(2)$

$e_{2}=-\frac{d \left(M i_{1} \right)}{dt}$

$e_{2}=-M \left(\frac{d i_{1}}{dt} \right)$

$M = \frac{e_{2}}{\left(\frac{d i_{1}}{dt} \right)}$

If $\left(\frac{d i_{1}}{dt} \right) = 1$

Then

$M = e_{2}$

The above equation shows that If the rate of flow of current in the primary coil is unit then the coefficient of mutual induction will be equal to the induced electro-motive force $\left( emf \right)$ in the secondary coil.

### Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of the incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of lig

### Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

### Electromagnetic wave equation in free space

Maxwell's Equations: Maxwell's equation of the electromagnetic wave is a collection of four equations i.e. Gauss's law of electrostatic, Gauss's law of magnetism, Faraday's law of electromotive force, and Ampere's Circuital law. Maxwell converted the integral form of these equations into the differential form of the equations. The differential form of these equations is known as Maxwell's equations. $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{E}= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_{0}}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{B}=0$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E}=-\frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B}}{\partial t}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \overrightarrow{J}$ Modified Form: $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \left(\overrightarrow{J}+ \epsilon \frac{ \partial \overrightarrow{E}}{\partial t} \right)$ For free space