### Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave

Electromagnetic Wave:

An electromagnetic wave is the combined effect of an electric field and magnetic field which carry energy from one place to another.

When an electric field and the magnetic field are applied perpendicular to each other then a wave propagates perpendicular to both the electric field and the magnetic field. This wave is called the electromagnetic wave.

Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave:

1.) Electric and Magnetic Fields: Electromagnetic waves are produced through the mutually perpendicular interaction of electric and magnetic fields. The propagation of the wave is also perpendicular to both the electric field and the magnetic field.

2.) Wave Nature of electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their wave-like behavior, so they exhibit the properties such as wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and velocity. This wave-like behavior of electromagnetic waves can undergo phenomena like interference, diffraction, and polarization.

3.) The spectrum of an electromagnetic wave: In the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, All the wavelengths and frequencies of the waves are included such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays etc.

4.) Speed of electromagnetic wave: The speed of electromagnetic waves in free space or vacuum is equal to the speed of light in free space or vacuum, which is approximately 299,792 $Km/s$.

5.) Transverse waves of an electromagnetic wave: Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves which mean that the oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields occur perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

6.) Dual nature of electromagnetic wave: Electromagnetic waves have both wave-like and particle-like behavior. They can be described as a stream of particles called photons, each photon carrying a specific amount of energy (quantum). This duality is described by the wave-particle duality principle in quantum mechanics.

7.) Energy transfer in electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves transport energy through space. The amount of energy carried by each wave depends on its frequency. Higher frequency waves, such as gamma rays and X-rays, carry more energy than lower frequency waves like radio waves.

8.) Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission of Electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves can be absorbed by certain materials, reflected off surfaces, or transmitted through transparent substances. The behavior of waves at boundaries depends on factors such as the angle of incidence, the nature of the material, and the frequency of the wave.

9.) Electromagnetic Induction of electromagnetic wave: When electromagnetic waves interact with conductive materials or circuits, they can induce electric currents or voltages. This principle is the basis for technologies like antennas, wireless communication, and electromagnetic sensors.

10.) Electromagnetic Interactions of electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves can interact with matter in various ways, including absorption, scattering, and emission. These interactions are utilized in fields such as optics, spectroscopy, medical imaging, and telecommunications.

### Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of light w

### Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

### Particle in one dimensional box (Infinite Potential Well)

Let us consider a particle of mass $m$ that is confined to one-dimensional region $0 \leq x \leq L$ or the particle is restricted to move along the $x$-axis between $x=0$ and $x=L$. Let the particle can move freely in either direction, between $x=0$ and $x=L$. The endpoints of the region behave as ideally reflecting barriers so that the particle can not leave the region. A potential energy function $V(x)$ for this situation is shown in the figure below. Particle in One-Dimensional Box(Infinite Potential Well) The potential energy inside the one -dimensional box can be represented as $\begin{Bmatrix} V(x)=0 &for \: 0\leq x \leq L \\ V(x)=\infty & for \: 0> x > L \\ \end{Bmatrix}$ $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2m}{\hbar^{2}}(E-V)\psi(x)=0 \qquad(1)$ If the particle is free in a one-dimensional box, Schrodinger's wave equation can be written as: $\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x^{2}}+\frac{2mE}{\hbar^{2}}\psi(x)=0$ \$\frac{d^{2} \psi(x)}{d x