Classical mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of macroscopic bodies or objects $(i.e \: the \: size \: range \: greater \: then \: 10^{-8}m)$ under the influence of forces. While it was groundbreaking when first developed by Sir Isaac Newton in the 17th century, it has certain limitations that were discovered over time. In this answer, we will discuss these limitations in more detail:

1. Classical Mechanics is not applicable to extremely small objects: Classical mechanics assumes that particles have a definite position and momentum, which is not true in the quantum world. This limitation became apparent in the early 20th century with the discovery of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the behavior or motion of particles on an atomic and subatomic level $(i.e \: the \: size \: range \: is \: in \: between \: 10^{-8}m \: to \: 10^{-15}m)$ i.e microscopic particles. It has been successful in explaining phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, blackbody radiation, and the behavior of electrons in atoms, which cannot be explained by classical mechanics.
2. Classical Mechanics is not applicable to objects moving at very high speeds: Classical mechanics assumes that the speed of an object can be infinite,  it is not true in the relativistic world. The theory of relativity which was developed by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century, explains the behavior of objects moving at high speeds (i.e. equal to the speed of light). The theory of relativity has been successful in predicting phenomena such as time dilation, length contraction, and the equivalence of mass and energy.
3. Classical Mechanics can not well explain the behavior of systems with many particles: Classical mechanics is not well suited for dealing with systems that have many particles. This is because it is difficult to solve the equations of motion for systems with many particles, and the behavior of the system can become chaotic. The theory of statistical mechanics, developed in the late 19th century, addresses this limitation by using probability distributions to describe the behavior of large systems.
4. Classical Mechanics can not explain the behavior of objects that are very far apart or have very high masses: Newton's law of gravity works well for objects that are close together, but it fails to explain the behavior of objects that are extremely far apart or have very high masses, such as black holes and galaxies. The theory of general relativity, developed by Einstein in the early 20th century, provides a better explanation of the behavior of objects with very high masses and gravitational fields.
5. Classical Mechanics assumes determinism: Classical mechanics assumes that the universe is deterministic, meaning that the future state of a system can be predicted with complete accuracy if the initial state is known. However, this assumption has been challenged by the theory of chaos, which suggests that small changes in the initial state of a system can lead to unpredictable and chaotic behavior in the future.
In summary, while classical mechanics is still useful for understanding the behavior of macroscopic objects, its limitations have led to the development of new theories, such as quantum mechanics, relativity, statistical mechanics, and chaos theory, which can explain the behavior of the universe at different scales and levels of complexity.

### Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of the incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of lig

### Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

### Electromagnetic wave equation in free space

Maxwell's Equations: Maxwell's equation of the electromagnetic wave is a collection of four equations i.e. Gauss's law of electrostatic, Gauss's law of magnetism, Faraday's law of electromotive force, and Ampere's Circuital law. Maxwell converted the integral form of these equations into the differential form of the equations. The differential form of these equations is known as Maxwell's equations. $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{E}= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_{0}}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{B}=0$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E}=-\frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B}}{\partial t}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \overrightarrow{J}$ Modified Form: $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \left(\overrightarrow{J}+ \epsilon \frac{ \partial \overrightarrow{E}}{\partial t} \right)$ For free space