### Refraction of light through a thin lens : Lens maker's formula

Derivation of refraction of light through a thin lens & Lens maker's formula:

Let us consider, A convex lens having thickness $t$ and radius of curvature of surfaces is $R_{1}$ and $R_{2}$. If an object $O$ is placed at distance $u$ from the first surface of the convex lens and its image $I'$ is formed at distance $v'$ from the first surface of the convex lens then refraction of light through the first spherical surface of the lens

$\frac{\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right)}{R_{1}} = \frac{n_{2}}{v'} - \frac{n_{1}}{u} \qquad(1)$
Now the Image $I'$ works as a virtual object for the second surface of the convex lens which image $I$ formed at distance $v$ from the second surface of the lens. So refraction of light through the second surface of the lens

$\frac{\left( n_{1} - n_{2} \right)}{R_{2}} = \frac{n_{1}}{v} - \frac{n_{2}}{v' - t}$

Here $t$ is the thickness of the lens. If the lens is very thin then thickness will be $t=0$. Therefore above equation for second surface of the lens can be written as

$\frac{\left( n_{1} - n_{2} \right)}{R_{2}} = \frac{n_{1}}{v} - \frac{n_{2}}{v'} \qquad(2)$

Now add the equation $(1)$ and equation $(2)$, So

$\frac{\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right)}{R_{1}} + \frac{\left( n_{1} - n_{2} \right)}{R_{2}} = \frac{n_{2}}{v'} - \frac{n_{1}}{u} + \frac{n_{1}}{v} - \frac{n_{2}}{v'}$

$\frac{\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right)}{R_{1}} + \frac{\left( n_{1} - n_{2} \right)}{R_{2}} = - \frac{n_{1}}{u} + \frac{n_{1}}{v}$

$\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right) \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right) =n_{1} \left( \frac{1}{v} - \frac{1}{u} \right)$

$n_{1} \left( \frac{1}{v} - \frac{1}{u} \right) = \left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right) \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right)$

$\left( \frac{1}{v} - \frac{1}{u} \right) = \frac{\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right)}{n_{1}} \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right)$

We know that the equation of the focal length of a lens

$\frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{v} - \frac{1}{u}$

Where $f \rightarrow$ Focal length of convex lens. Now substitute the value of $f$ in the above equation

$\frac{1}{f} = \frac{\left( n_{2} - n_{1} \right)}{n_{1}} \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right)$

$\frac{1}{f} = \left( \frac{n_{2}}{n_{1}} - 1 \right) \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right)$

$\frac{1}{f} = \left( n - 1 \right) \left( \frac{1}{R_{1}} - \frac{1}{R_{2}} \right) \qquad \left( \because \frac{n_{2}}{n_{1}}= n\right)$

The above equation represents the equation of refraction of light through a thin lens and lens maker's formula.

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