### Resolving Power of Optical Instrument | Rayleigh Criterion of Resolution

Resolving power of an optical instrument:

The ability of an optical instrument to just resolve the images of two closely spaced objects is called its resolving power.

Limit of Resolution:

The smallest distance between two closely spaced objects that can be seen as separated or just separated from each other through an optical instrument is known as the limit of resolution of that optical instrument.

Rayleigh Criterion:

Rayleigh criterion describes the separation between the two objects or wavelengths (i.e. resolving power) by the resultant intensity distribution of objects and wavelengths. According to Rayleigh's criterion, there are the following cases:

Case:1 If two point sources have very small angular separation, then central or principal maxima in their diffraction patterns will overlap to a large extent and resultant intensity shows uniform variation. As shown in the figure below. In this case, the two objects or wavelengths can not be distinguished or unresolved.

Case:2 If two point sources have very large angular separation then the central or principal maxima are widely separated and the resultant intensity shows two widely separated peaks. As shown in the figure below. In this case, the objects or wavelengths are resolved well.

Case:3 If the central or principal maxima in the diffraction pattern of one object or wavelength coincide with the first minima in the diffraction pattern of the other objects or wavelength then the resultant intensity shows a small dip. As shown in the figure below. In this case, the objects or wavelengths are seen to be just separate or just resolved.

### Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of the incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less than the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of lig

### Fraunhofer diffraction due to a single slit

Let $S$ be a point monochromatic source of light of wavelength $\lambda$ placed at the focus of collimating lens $L_{1}$. The light beam is incident normally from $S$ on a narrow slit $AB$ of width $e$ and is diffracted from it. The diffracted beam is focused at the screen $XY$ by another converging lens $L_{2}$. The diffraction pattern having a central bright band followed by an alternative dark and bright band of decreasing intensity on both sides is obtained. Analytical Explanation: The light from the source $S$ is incident as a plane wavefront on the slit $AB$. According to Huygens's wave theory, every point in $AB$ sends out secondary waves in all directions. The undeviated ray from $AB$ is focused at $C$ on the screen by the lens $L_{2}$ while the rays diffracted through an angle $\theta$ are focussed at point $p$ on the screen. The rays from the ends $A$ and $B$ reach $C$ in the same phase and hence the intensity is maximum. Fraunhofer diffraction due to

### Electromagnetic wave equation in free space

Maxwell's Equations: Maxwell's equation of the electromagnetic wave is a collection of four equations i.e. Gauss's law of electrostatic, Gauss's law of magnetism, Faraday's law of electromotive force, and Ampere's Circuital law. Maxwell converted the integral form of these equations into the differential form of the equations. The differential form of these equations is known as Maxwell's equations. $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{E}= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_{0}}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla}. \overrightarrow{B}=0$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{E}=-\frac{\partial \overrightarrow{B}}{\partial t}$ $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \overrightarrow{J}$ Modified Form: $\overrightarrow{\nabla} \times \overrightarrow{B}= \mu \left(\overrightarrow{J}+ \epsilon \frac{ \partial \overrightarrow{E}}{\partial t} \right)$ For free space