### Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction

The Faraday's experiment shows the two laws which are known as Farday's laws of electromagnetic induction

First Law (Neumann's Law): The rate of change of magnetic flux through a circuit is equal to the emf produced in the circuit. This is also known as "Neumann Law"

$e=-\frac{\Delta \phi}{ \Delta t}$

Here negative sign shows the direction of emf.

If $\Delta t \rightarrow 0$

$e=-\frac{d \phi}{ d t}$

This equation represents an independent experimental law that cannot be derived from other experimental laws.

If the circuit is a tightly wound coil of $N$ turns, then the induced emf

$e=-N\frac{d \phi}{ d t}$

$e=-\frac{d \left(N \phi\right)}{ dt}$

Here $N \phi$ is called the 'Linkage magnetic flux'.

Note: The change in flux induces emf, not the current.

Second Law (Lenz's Law): The direction of induced EMF produced in a closed circuit is such that it opposes the original cause that produces it. It is also called "Lenz's law". The direction of induced EMF is described by Fleming's right-hand rule.