## Posts

### Comparison of Single Mode and Multimode Index Fibres

Comparison of Single-Mode Index Fibres and Multimode Index Fibres→ S.No. Single Mode Index Fibre Multimode Index Fibre 1. In single mode index fibre, the diameter of the core is very small and is of the same order as the wavelength of light to be propagated. It is in the range $5\mu m - 10 \mu m$. The Cladding diameter is about $125 \mu m$. In multimode index fibre, the diameter of the core is large. It is in the range $30\mu m - 100 \mu m$. The Cladding diameter is in the range $125 \mu m - 500 \mu m$. 2. The difference in refractive indices of the core and cladding material is very small. The difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials is large. 3. In single-mode fibre, only a single mode is propagated. In multi-mode fibre, a large number of modes can be propagated. 4. Single mod fibre does require a much more sophisticated li

### Difference between Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction

Difference between Fraunhofer Diffraction and Fresnel Diffraction→ S.No. Fresnel Diffraction Fraunhofer Diffraction 1. The distance between source to slit and slit to screen is finite. The distance between source to slit and slit to screen is infinite. 2. The shape of the incident wavefront on the slit is spherical or cylindrical. The shape of the incident wavefront on the slit is plane. 3. The shape of the incident wavefront on the screen is spherical or cylindrical. The shape of the incident wavefront on the screen is a plane. 4. There is a path difference created between the rays before entering the slit. This path difference depends on the distance between the source and slit. There is not any path difference between the rays before entering the slit. 5. Path difference between the rays forming the diffraction pattern depends on the

### Principle construction and working of potentiometer

Potentiometer- An ideal voltmeter that does not change the original potential difference, needs to have infinite resistance. But a voltmeter cannot be designed to have infinite resistance. The potentiometer is one such instrument that does not draw any current from the circuit and still measures the potential difference. so it behaves as an ideal voltmeter. "A potentiometer is an instrument. This is used to measure the potential difference between two points of an electric circuit and emf of a cell." Principle- The principle of the potentiometer depends upon the potential gradient along the wire i.e. "When a constant current flows in a wire then the potential drops per unit length of the wire". Construction- A potentiometer consists of a long wire $AB$ of uniform cross-section, usually, this wire is $4 m$ to $10 m$ long and it is made of the material having high resistivity and low-temperature coefficient such as manganin or constant. Usually,

### Metre Bridge OR Slide Wire Bridge

What is Metre Bridge? It is the simplest practical application of the Wheatstone's bridge that is used to measure an unknown resistance. Principle: Its working is based on the principle of Wheatstone's Bridge. When the Wheatstone's bridge is balanced $\frac{P}{Q}=\frac{R}{S}$ Construction: It consists of usually one-meter long manganin wire of uniform cross-section, stretched along a meter scale fixed over a wooden board and with its two ends soldered to two L-shaped thick copper strips $A$ and $C$. Between these two copper strips, another copper strip is fixed so as to provide two gaps $mn$ and $m_{1}n_{1}$. A resistance box (R.B.) is connected in the gap $mn$ and the unknown resistance $S$ is connected in the gap $m_{1}n_{1}$. A cell of emf $E$, Key $(K)$, and rheostat are connected across $AC$. A movable jockey and a galvanometer are connected across the $BD$, as shown in the figure. Metre Bridge Or Slide Wire Bridge Working: In

### Wheatstone's Bridge

It is an arrangement of four resistance used to determine one of this resistance quickly and accurately in terms of the remaining three resistance. Objective: To find the unknown resistance with the help of the remaining three resistance. Principle of Wheatstone Bridge:  The principle of Wheatstone bridge is based on the principle of Kirchhoff's Law. Construction: A Wheatstone bridge consists of four resistance $P$,$Q$,$R$, and $S$. This resistance is connected to form quadrilateral $ABCD$. A battery of EMF $E$ is connected between point $A$ and $C$ and a sensitive galvanometer is connected between point $B$ and $D$ Which is shown in the figure below. Diagram of Wheatstone's Bridge Working: To find the unknown resistance $S$, The resistance $R$ is to be adjusted like there is no deflection in the galvanometer. which means that there is not any flow of current in the arm $BD$. This condition is called "Balanced Wheatstone bridge" i.e

### Kirchhoff's laws for an electric circuits

Kirchhoff's laws:  Kirchhoff had given two laws for electric circuits i.e. Kirchhoff's Current Law or Junction Law Kirchhoff's Voltage Law or Loop Law Kirchhoff's Current Law or Junction Law: Kirchhoff's current law state that The algebraic sum of all the currents at the junction in any electric circuit is always zero. $\sum_{1}^{n}{i_{n}}=0$ Sign Connection:   While applying the KCL, the current moving toward the junction is taken as positive while the current moving away from the junction is taken as negative. The flow of Current in a junction So from figure,the current $i_{1}$,$i_{2}$,$i_{5}$ is going toward the junction and the current $i_{3}$,$i_{4}$, So $\sum{i}= i_{1}+i_{2}+(-i_{3})+(-i_{4})+i_{5}$ According to KCL $\sum{i}= 0$, Now the above equation can be written as \$i_{1}+i_{2}+