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Frame of References (Inertial Frame and Non Inertial Frame)

It is assumed that space is continuous and the motion of particles in space can be described by their position at different instants of time. The position of a particle is known as a point in space. These points are described by the coordinate system in space. When point (position of particle in space) and the time are taken together then it is called an Event . The coordinate system of a particle which describe the position of any particle relative to it, then such coordinate system is known as Frame of Reference or System of Reference . Absolute Space: The absolute space is those frame of reference relative to which every motion and position should be measured. Types of Frame of Reference: According to the motion of particles frame of reference is divided into two categories Inertial frame of reference Non-inertial frame of reference Inertial frame of reference:

Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Ruby Laser

Characteristics of Ruby Laser → Some of the characteristics of ruby laser are given as follows: Ruby laser is the first working laser that was developed in 1960. Ruby lasers are three-level solid-state pulsed lasers with pulse lengths of the order of a millisecond. This laser uses a synthetic Ruby crystal that is Aluminium oxide as its gain medium. A triply ionized chromium $$Cr^{+3} is used as a dopant for active ion, concentration bring of the order of $0.055%$. Ruby crystals are hard and durable, chemically stable and it has good thermal conductivity. Ruby lasers are optically pumped using a flash lamp. In a ruby laser, water or liquid nitrogen is used as a coolant. These lasers produce pulses of visible light at wavelength $6928A^{\circ}$ and $6943A^{\circ}$, with $6943A^{\circ}$ as dominant wavelength which is a deep red color. Ruby laser is highly temperature-dependent.

Principle, Construction and Working of the Ruby Laser

Principle of Ruby Laser → Ruby laser is the first working laser that was invented by T.H.Maima in 1960. It is a three-level solid-state pulsed laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal or sapphire$(Al_{2}O_{3})$ as its gain medium and triply ionized chromium$(Cr^{+3})$ is used as a dopant. Construction of Ruby Laser → There are the following main components of ruby laser: Active Medium Resonant Cavity Pumping and Cooling Device Ruby laser diagram 1. Active Medium → The active medium or gained medium in ruby laser is a synthetic ruby crystal or Aluminium oxide $(Al_{2}O_{3})$ in the form of a cylindrical rod having size $2-30cm$ in length and $0.5-2.0cm$ in diameter. The size of the rod main varies depending upon the use. This gain medium falls in the category of 'narrow line width' laser material. A triply ionised chromium $(Cr^{+3})$ is used as doping material or dopant which works as

Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle of the Optical Fibre

Angle of Acceptance → If incident angle of light on the core for which the incident angle on the core-cladding interface equals the critical angle then incident angle of light on the core is called the "Angle of Acceptance. Transmission of light when the incident angle is equal to the acceptance angle If the incident angle is greater then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}>\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be less than the critical angle due to which part of incident light is transmitted into cladding as shown in the figure below Transmission of light when the incident angle is greater than the acceptance angle If the incident angle is less then the acceptance angle i.e. $\theta_{i}<\theta_{0}$ then the angle of incidence on the core-cladding interface will be greater than the critical angle for which total internal reflection takes place inside the core. As shown in the figure below Transmission of light w

Four Level Pumping in Laser

Description: In four-level pumping, atoms of ground energy state go to upper energy state$(E_{4})$ by pumping transition to achieve the population inversion. Due to the short time of the upper energy state atoms go to metastable state by nonradiative transitions or spontaneous emission. Atoms of metastable state come to lower lasing level by laser transition process. The atoms come from lower lasing level to ground state by nonradiative transition or spontaneous emission. This process is repeated continuously. Four-level pumping in Laser In contrast to level pumping, the lower lasing transition level in the four-level scheme is not the ground state and is virtually vacant. As soon as some atoms are pumped to the upper lasing level, population inversion is achieved. So it is required less pumping energy than a three-level laser system. this is the major disadvantage of this scheme. Further, the lifetime of the lower lasing level is shorter as it is not a metastable state. H

Three level pumping in Laser

Description: Three-level pumping in laser is suitable for attending population inversion. When atoms of ground energy state observe the photon from incident energy. It goes from lower energy or ground energy state two to a higher energy state but the lifetime of a high energy state is very short that is $10^{-8}$ $sec$ i.e. So an atom cannot stay for a long time in high energy state i.e.$E_{3}$ and then the atom goes for non-radiative transition and reach to the metastable state. In a metastable state, Atoms cannot go to a lower energy state or ground energy state directly. Therefore, These atoms come from a metastable state to a lower energy state or ground energy state by lasing transition. Three-level pumping in Laser This is the process of three-level pumping in a laser. For better pumping efficiency, The level $E_{3}$ should be the band of energy levels instead of being a single arrow line. It allows the use of pumping radiation of wider bandwidth to excite more

Two Level Pumping in Laser

Two-level pumping occurs between two energy levels. All the process of laser (absorption, spontaneous emission, or stimulated emission) occurs between two energy level. The absorption of light or emission of light energy is the difference between two energy levels. If two energy levels are $E_{1}$ and $E_{2}$ so absorption or emission of a photon → $E_{2}-E_{1}=h\nu$ Where$h$ → Planck's Constant$\nu$ → Frequency of photon Two-level pumping in laser is not suitable for attaining the population inversion. The transition of atoms between two energy levels by stimulated emission is called a lasing transition. The lower level is known as the lower lasing level and the upper level is known as the upper lasing level. The upper lasing level must be a metastable level. The uppermost level to which atoms are in the excited state is known as the pumping level. The transition between the ground level and pumping level is called the pumping transition. Two-leve