## Uses of Fossil Fuels

Uses:

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-based energy sources that are derived from the remains of dead plants and animals that were buried deep within the earth's crust millions of years ago. They are the most commonly used sources of energy in the world, and they are used in a variety of ways, including:

Electricity generation: Fossil fuels are the primary source of electricity generation in many parts of the world. Coal, natural gas, and oil are burned in power plants to generate steam, which drives turbines to generate electricity.

Transportation: Fossil fuels are used to power most modes of transportation, including cars, buses, trucks, and airplanes. Gasoline and diesel fuel are derived from crude oil, while compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are used as alternative fuels in some vehicles.

Heating and cooling: Fossil fuels are used to heat and cool buildings through the use of furnaces, boilers, and air conditioning units. Natural gas is commonly used for heating, while oil and coal are used in some regions.

Industrial processes: Fossil fuels are used in many industrial processes, such as manufacturing, chemical production, and mining. Oil and gas are used as feedstocks for the production of plastics and other materials.

Despite their widespread use, fossil fuels have negative environmental impacts, including air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. Efforts are being made to transition to cleaner and more sustainable sources of energy, such as renewable energy sources like wind and solar power.

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### Bernoulli's Theorem and Derivation of Bernoulli's Equation

Statement of Bernoulli's Theorem: When an ideal fluid (i.e incompressible and non-viscous Liquid or Gas) flows in streamlined motion from one place to another, then the total energy per unit volume (i.e Pressure energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy) at each and every of its path is constant. $P+\frac{1}{2}\rho v^{2} + \rho gh= constant$ Derivation of Bernoulli's Theorem Equation: Let us consider that an incompressible and non-viscous liquid is flowing in streamlined motion through a tube $XY$ of the non-uniform cross-section. Now Consider: The Area of cross-section $X$ = $A_{1}$ The Area of cross-section $Y$ = $A_{2}$ The velocity per second (i.e. equal to distance) of fluid at cross-section $X$ = $v_{1}$ The velocity per second (i.e. equal to distance) of fluid at cross-section $Y$ = $v_{2}$ The Pressure of fluid at cross-section $X$ = $P_{1}$ The Pressure of fluid at cross-section $Y$ = $P_{2}$ The height of cross-section $X$ from